In this section, 45 technical plans of submarines are presented. The plans are organized in a chronological fashion so that a more or less historic overview of submarine technology should be obtained. Note however that the author's collection is far from complete. Any addition would be very much appreciated. If you have plans or pictures of historical submarines that are not yet presented here or if you have better quality images available, do not hesitate to contact me:

B.T.W. To get the high resolution images follow these instructions:
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Some 400 years before Christ, Alexander the Great explored the depths of the sea in a glass diving bell [Botting, 1979].

Again our friend Alex the Great in his glass diving device, [picture from the web]. Comparing this picture with the previous one, it is obvious that determining the construction of Alex's diving bell of Alex is not an easy task. 

Wooden pre-submarine the Rotterdam, 1654 (NL) [Francis, 1997].  Large picture (2210 x 955 pixels, 193 kByte) here

Design of a 'Diving Bell' by father Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, published in this 'De montu Animalium' (on the motion of animals) published in 1680 in Rome [van der Vat, 1994]. Large Picture (2439 x 1271 pixels, 214 kByte) here

So much for copyright! Boat built by Nathaniel Symons in 1747, seventy years after the Borelli design [van der Vat, 1994] . This boat is supposed to have actually been submerged for forty-five minutes in the river Thames (UK). Large picture (2685 x 1288 pixels, 65 kByte) here.

The Turtle by David Bushnel, 1776 (USA) [Chant, 1996]. The Turtle attempted to attach its 150 lb gunpowder charge to the British flagship the Eagle, but failed. Large picture (1451 x 1130 pixels, 135 kByte) here

The Nautilus by Robert Fulton, 1800 (USA) [Francis]. In 1800 Fulton obtained a grant to build the sub for Napoleon. Large picture (1911 x 1374 pixel, 154 kByte) here.

The 'Brandtaucher' designed by Wilhelm Bauer in 1850 (D) [van der Vat, 1994]. Large picture (3339 x 1120 pixels, 285 kByte) here

The 'Hunley', after Horace Lawson Hunley, 1863 (USA) [Ragan, 1995]. An American human powered submarine. The Hunley took part in the civil war and was the first submarine ever that sunk an enemy vessel on February 17th, 1864. Currently the wreck of the Hunley has been salvaged. Large picture (4143 x 1904 pixels, 388 kByte) here

An early submarine design by John P. Holland, 1877 (USA) [Morris, 1998]. The text on the drawing states that the boat was experimented with in 1878 and contains the autograph of John Holland! Large picture (1451 x 1130 pixels, 135 kByte) here

Design by George Garrett, 1878(UK) [Compton-Hall, 1999]. Large picture (952 x 466 pixels, 42 kByte) here

The 'Nautilus' by Ash and Campbell 1888 (UK) [van der Vat, 1994]. This boat was the first to run on batteries underwater. Large picture (4005 x 977 pixels, 159 kByte) here.

Holland A-1 design, 1901 (USA) [Chant, 1996]. This boat may be regarded as the first real submarine. It features diesel electric propulsion and has on board torpedo tubes. The life and works of John P. Holland, is outlined in [Morris, 1998]. Large picture (3613 x 1671 pixels, 131 kByte) here.

The first true German U-boot: the U1 1906 (D). [Rossler,2001] Large picture (1669 x 895 pixels, 103 kByte) here

O1. The first Royal Dutch Navy submarine, 1906 (NL) [Jalhay, 1997]. Large picture (2080 x 733, 80 kByte) here

O21. Pre WWII Dutch submarine (NL) [Gerretse, 1993]. Large picture (3309 x 1757, 348 kByte) here

K-18. Pre WWII Dutch submarine 1931 (NL) [Wytema, 1936]. Large picture (3327 x 798, 43 kByte) here.

Type II German Pre WWII submarine, 1935 (D) [Rossler, 1999]. Large picture (3023 x 2174 pixels, 381 kByte) here

Type 9b German pre WWII submarine, 1939 (D)  [Gabler, 1987].  Large picture (5650 x 2654 pixels, 188 kByte) here

Type VIIB German WWII submarine, 1939 (D) . [Rossler,2001] Large picture (770 x 950 pixels, 109 kByte) here
German Type XIV, WWII submarine, 1940 (D). The XIV supplied fluel to other submarines and was thus called a milkcow, [picture from web site].  Large picture (667 x 351 pixels, 188 kByte) here

Famous German WWII boat Type VIIC, 1941 (D) [Kohn and Niestle, 1997]. Large picture (3048 x 1315 pixels, 406 kByte) here

British Chariot Mk I, 1942 (UK). A two person human manned torpedo.  [Kemp, 1999]. Large picture (1581 x 872 pixels, 130 kByte) here

An English WWII mini submarine X-craft, 1942 (UK). X5-X10 series. [Kemp, 1999]. Large picture (7767 x 3665 pixels, 782 kByte) here

A small German WWII sub WK202, 1942 (D). [Rossler,2001] Large picture (1669 x 895 pixels, 103 kByte) here

Type 21 WWII German submarine, 1944 (D) [Gabler, 1987].  Large picture  (3000 x 1697 pixels, 617 kByte) here

Ty-pe 26 WWI German submarine, 1945 (D) [Gabler, 1987].  Large picture  (1820 x 1358 pixels, 617 kByte) here.

Russian Quebec class submarine, 19XX (USSR). Picture from Russion website  Large picture (3146 x 1798 pixels, 62 kByte) here

Zulu V class Russian submarine, 1952 (USSR).  [Foxtrot]. Large picture  (6790 x 3456 pixels,782 kByte) here

Dolfijn class, 1954 (NL). Dutch triple hull submarine [Gerretse, 1993]. Large picture (3568 x 2143 pixels, 568 kByte) here

Russian November Class submarine, 1958 (USSR). Picture from Russion website  Large picture (150 x 647 pixels, 66 kByte) here

German type 205 submarine, 1962 (D).  [Rossler and Emsmann, 1996] model. Large picture (3091 x 1479 pixels, 396 kByte) here

Spanish Tiburon submarine, 1964. This boat was designed in 1952 with help from the WWII German submarine experts. Picture from Submarines on Public Display.

USS Flasher, an American Thresher class boat (1966). Large picture (826 x 324 pixels, 215 kByte) here. Picture obtained from Ric Hedman of RD Designs.

Dutch Zwaardvis class, 1966 (NL) [Nederlandse Vereniging voor Modelbouwers]. Large picture (5000 x 1694 pixels, 266 kBytes) here

German 206A submarine design, 1973 (D). This is the drawing of a Revell plastic model. Large picture (2982 x 2033 pixels, 348 kByte) here

Hydrosub, designed by Brian Walker "The Rocket Guy" (1979). No large image available but more drawings can be found on Brian's Website

Typhoon, Russian missile submarine 1980 (USSR)  [Modeler Konstruktor]. Thanks to Jerome Simon, who is building this boat. More detailed drawings will soon be available. Large picture (2010 x 1452 pixels, 88 kByte) here

TR 1700 Argentinan submarine, 1980. Thanks to Daniel Alberto Mesa webmaster of the site Large picture (800 x 1300 pixels, 253 kByte) here

Akula, Russian submarine 1984 (USSR) [Marinin]. Large picture (5147 x 2263 pixels, 134 kByte) here

Norwegian Ula class, 1989 (N). Large picture (1234 x 372 pixels, 37 kBytes) here

Russian Oscar II Class 1990 (USSR). Large picture (1050 x 722 pixels, 72 kByte) here. Picture from web site of Federation of American Scientists.

British Vanguard Class 1992 (UK).  Large picture (1337 x 467 pixels, 55 kByte) here. The plans are made by Jecobin and can be obtained from White Ensign Models.

Turkish Preveze Class (German design 209-1400) 1994 (T). Large picture (1502 x 1016 pixels, 231 kBytes) here. Picture obtained from Ömer Kalaycýoðlu


Botting, D., 1979, 'De Duitse Onderzeeboten', Time Life books, Amsterdam, ISBN, 90 6182 4133.

Chant, C, 1996, 'Submarines of the 20th century', Tiger Books Int., Twickenham, ISBN 1-85501-804-7.

Compton-Hall, Richard, 1999, 'The submarine Pioneers, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-2154-4.

Francis, T.L., 1997, 'Submarines, Leviathans of the deep', Metro Books, New York, ISBN 1-56799-427-X.

Gabler, Ulrich, 1987, 'Unterseebootbau', Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Koblenz, ISBN 3-7637-5286-2.

Gerretse, K.H.L. and J.J.A. Wijn, 1993, 'Drie Cylinders Duiken Dieper, Van Soerden & Co., Amsterdam, ISBN 90-6881-027-8.

Jalhay, P.C., 1997, 'Ik nader ongezien - De onderzeeboten van de Koninklijke Marine 1906-1996', De Bataafsche Leeuw, Amsterdam.

Paul Kemp, 1999, ' Miget Submarines of the Second World War, Chatham Publishing, London, ISBN 1-86176-042-6. 

Richard Knowles Morris, 1998, 'John P. Holland, Inventor of the Modern Submarine, University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 1-57003-236-X.

Kohln F. and A. Niestle, 1997, Vom Original zum Modell: Uboottyp VIIC, Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn, ISBN 3-7637-6002-4.

WalerieMarinin and Nikolai Walujew, 'Sowjetisch-Russische Atom-U-Boote, gefahr aus der tiefe'. 

Morris, R.K., 1998, 'John P. Holland, Inventor of the Modern Submarine', University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 1-57003-236-X.

Modeler Konstruktor, a Russian modeling magazine.

Nederlandse Vereniging van Modelbouwers (NVM)
F. Kamman, van der Helstlaan 5, 1412 HG, Naarden, The Netherlands.

Antony Preston, 'Die Geschichte der U-Boote, Karl Muller Verlag, ISBN 3-86070-697-7.

Mark K. Ragan, 1995, The Hunley - submarines, sacrifice, & success in the civil war-, Narwhal Press Inc. Miami (USA).

Revell, 1997, Description of Plastic kit 05021-0389 Revel A.G.

Rossler E. and H-J Emsmann, 1996, Vom Original zum Modell: Ubootklasse 205 - Bundesmarine-, Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn, ISBN 3-7637-6011-3.

Rossler E. 1999, Vom Original zum Modell: Uboottyp II - Die 'Einbaume'-, Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn, ISBN 3-7637-6023-7.

Rossler, E., 2001, The U-Boot - the evolution and technical history of German submarines-, Arms and Armor Press, ISBN 0-304-36120-8.

Russian Submarine, 1994, 'Beschrijving van de lange-afstand onderzeeboot van de Zulu klasse project 611', Foxtrot b.v. 

Dan van der Vat, 1994, 'Stealth at Sea - the history of the submarine-', Orion, London, ISBN 1-85797-864-1.

M.S. Wytema, 1936, "Klaar voor onderwater' Andries Blitz, Amsterdam, 1936